Publications

*Articles provided for personal use only

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Varner (Allen), L. K., Roscoe, R. D., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Evaluative misalignment of 10th-grade student and teacher criteria for essay quality: An automated textual analysis. Journal of Writing Research, 5, 35-59.

Jackson, G. T., Varner (Allen), L. K., Boonthum-Denecke, C., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). The impact of individual differences on learning with an educational game and a traditional ITS. International Journal of Learning Technology, 8, 315-336.

Roscoe, R. D., Varner (Allen), L. K., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Developing pedagogically-guided threshold algorithms for intelligent automated essay feedback. International Journal of Learning Technology, 8, 362-381.

 Allen, L. K., Crossley, S. A., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Game-based writing strategy tutoring for second language learners: Game enjoyment as a key to engagement. Language Learning and Technology, 18, 124-150.

Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & Crossley, S. A., Jackson, G. T., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Reading components and their relation to the writing process. L’année psychologique/Topics in Cognitive Psychology, 114, 663-391.

Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Analyzing discourse processing using a simple natural language processing tool (SiNLP). Discourse Processes, 51, 511-534.

Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., Allen, L. K., Guo, L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Linguistic microfeatures to predict L2 writing proficiency: A case study in automated writing evaluation. Journal of Writing Assessment, 7. Retrieved from http://www.journalofwritingassessment.org/article.php?article=74

Roscoe, R. D., Allen, L. K., Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). The Writing Pal intelligent tutoring system: Usability testing and development. Computers and Composition, 34, 39-59.

McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., Roscoe, R. D., Allen, L. K., & Dai, J. (2015). Hierarchical classification approach to automated essay scoring. Assessing Writing, 35-59.

McNamara, D. S., Jacovina, M. E., Snow, E. L., & Allen, L. K., (2015). From generating in the lab to tutoring systems in the classroom. Journal of American Psychology, 128, 159-172.

Roscoe, R. D., Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Automated detection of essay revising patterns: Application for intelligent feedback in a writing tutor. Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning.

Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Does agency matter?: Exploring the impact of controlled behaviors within a game-based environment. Computers in Education, 26, 378-392.

Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Spendency: A students’ propensity to interact with game-based features. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 25, 1-21.

 Snow, E. L., Likens, A. D., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Taking control: Stealth assessment of deterministic behaviors within a game-based system. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 1-22.

Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., Crossley, S. D., Perret, C. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Keys to detecting writing flexibility over time: Entropy and natural language processing. International Journal of Learning Analytics.

 Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The narrative waltz: The role of flexibility on writing performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108, 911-924.

 Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (revisions in progress). Incorporating learning characteristics into automatic essay scoring models: What individual differences and linguistic features tell us about writing quality. Journal of Educational Data Mining.

 Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (revisions in progress). What’s prompt got to do with it? The relationships between writing prompts, language production, and essay quality. Assessing Writing.

 Dascalu, M., Stavarche, L. L., McNamara, D. S., Trausan-Matu, S., & Allen, L. K. (under review). ReaderBench: Automatic quantitative analysis of participation in CSCL conversations. Behavioral Research Methods

 Roscoe, R. D., Allen, L. K., Mayra, C. R., Johnson, A. C., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (under review). High school student perceptions of automated writing evaluation. To be submitted to Computers and Education.

 Weston-Sementelli, J. L., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (under review). Comprehension and writing strategy training improves performance on source-based writing in science. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

 Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., & McNamara, D. S. (in preparation). Cohesive features of deep comprehension processes. To be submitted to a 2016 Special Issue of the Discourse Processes.

 Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in preparation). In other words: Lower- and higher-level cognitive skills mirrored in the properties of written essays. Manuscript to be submitted to Cognition and Instruction.  

 Allen, L. K., McNamara, D. S., & McCrudden, M. (in preparation). Investigating the effects of self-explanation in the resolution of misconceptions. To be submitted to Journal of Educational Psychology.

 Allen, L. K., Roscoe, R. D., & McNamara, D. S. (in preparation). Promoting enhanced metacognitive monitoring and writing performance via writing strategy training. To be submitted to Computers and Education.

BOOK CHAPTERS

Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S (2014). A multidimensional analysis of essay writing: What linguistic features tell us about situational parameters and the effects of language functions on judgments of quality. In T. B. Sardinha and M. V. Pinto (Eds.), Multi-dimensional analysis, 25 years on: A tribute to Douglas Biber (pp. 197-237). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). Computer-based writing instruction. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (2nd ed.) (pp. 316-329). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

McNamara, D. S., Jacovina, M. E., & Allen, L. K. (2015). Higher order thinking in comprehension. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of individual differences in reading: Text and context (pp. 164-176). Taylor & Francis, Routledge: NY.

 Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). The dynamical analysis of log-data within educational games. In Loh and Sheng (Eds.). Serious games analytics: Methodologies for performance measurement, assessment, and improvement (pp. 81-100). Springer International Publishing.

Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Five building blocks for comprehension strategy instruction. In Trends in Reading Research.

 Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). The role of language development in the successful comprehension of texts. In C. Connor (Ed.), The cognitive development of reading.

 Allen, L. K., & Perret, C. (in press). Computer-based writing systems in the commercial sector. In D. S. McNamara & S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Handbook on educational technologies for literacy. Taylor & Francis, Routledge: NY.

 Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). The Writing Pal: A writing strategy tutor. In D. S. McNamara & S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Handbook on educational technologies for literacy. Taylor & Francis, Routledge: NY.

Jackson, G. T., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Common Core TERA: Text Ease and Readability Assessor. In D. S. McNamara & S. A. Crossley (Eds.), Handbook on educational technologies for literacy. Taylor & Francis, Routledge: NY.

McNamara, D. S., & Allen, L. K. (in press). Writing: It’s a discourse process too. To appear in Handbook of discourse processes (2nd ed.).

McNamara, D. S., Allen, L. K., Crossley, S. A., Dascalu, M., & Perret, C. (under review). Natural language processing and learning analytics. To appear in Handbook of learning analytics and educational data mining. 

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (PEER REVIEWED)

 Roscoe, R. D., Varner (Allen), L. K., Cai, Z., Weston, J. L., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2011). Internal usability testing of automated essay feedback in an intelligent writing tutor. In R. C. Murray & P. M. McCarthy (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 543-548). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Crossley, S. A., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Cohesion-based prompt effects in argumentative writing. In C. Boonthum-Denecke & G. M. Youngblood (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 202-207). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. [Runner-up for Best Paper Award]

Crossley, S. A., Varner (Allen), L. K., Roscoe, R. D., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Using automated cohesion indices as a measure of writing growth in intelligent tutoring systems and automated essay writing systems. In K. Yacef et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) (pp. 269-278). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.

Jackson, G. T., Snow, E. L., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Game performance as a measure of comprehension and skill transfer. In C. Boonthum-Denecke & G. M. Youngblood (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 497-502). Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press.

 Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Expectations of technology: A factor to consider in game-based learning environments. In K. Yacef et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) (pp. 359-368). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.

Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Varner (Allen), L, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Investigating the effects of off-task personalization on system performance and attitudes within a game-based environment. In S. K. D’Mello, R. A., Calvo, & A. Olney (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 272-275). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). The impact of system interactions on motivation and performance. In C. Boonthum-Denecke & G. M. Youngblood (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 521-526). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Snow, E. L., Jackson, G. T., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). The impact of system interactions on motivation and performance. In Proceedings of the 15h International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCII) (pp. 103-107). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Varner (Allen), L. K., Jackson, G. T., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Are you committed? Investigating interactions among reading commitment, natural language input, and students’ learning outcomes. In S. K. D’Mello, R. A., Calvo, & A. Olney (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 368-369). Heidelberg, Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Varner (Allen), L. K., Jackson, G. T., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2013). Does size matter? Investigating user input at a larger bandwidth. In C. Boonthum-Denecke & G. M. Youngblood (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 546-549). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [Runner-up for Best Poster Award]

Varner (Allen), L, K., Jackson, G. T., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2013) Linguistic content analysis as a tool for improving adaptive instruction. In K. Yacef et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) (pp. 692-695). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.

Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). The long and winding road: Investigating the differential writing patterns of high and low skilled writers. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 304-307). London, UK

Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Now we’re talking: Leveraging the power of natural language processing to inform ITS development. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 401-402). London, UK.

Crossley S. A., Kyle, K., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). The importance of grammar and mechanics in writing assessment and instruction: Evidence from data mining. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 300-303). London, UK.

 Roscoe, R. D., Crossley, S. A., Snow, E. L., Varner (Allen), L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Writing quality, knowledge, and comprehension correlates of human and automated essay scoring. In W. Eberle & C. Boonthum-Denecke (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society (FLAIRS) Conference (pp. 393-398). Palo Alto, CA: AAAI Press.

Roscoe, R. D., Varner (Allen), L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Designing usable automated formative feedback for intelligent tutoring of writing. In J. L. Polman, E. A. Kyza, D. K. O’Neill, I. Tabak, W. R. Penuel, A. S. Jurow, K. O’Connor, T. Lee, & L. D’Amico (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS), Volume 3 (pp. 1423-1425). Boulder, CO.

Snow, E. L., Jacovina, M. E., Allen, L. K., Dai. J., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Entropy: A stealth assessment of agency in learning environments. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 241-244). London, UK.

Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Tracking choices: Computational analysis of learning trajectories. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 316-319). London, UK.

Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., Russell, D. G., & McNamara, D. S. (2014). Who’s in control?: Categorizing nuanced patterns of behaviors within a game-based intelligent tutoring system. In J. Stamper, Z. Pardos, M. Mavrikis, & B. M. McLaren (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 185-192). London, UK.

Allen, L. K., Crossley, S. A., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Predicting misalignment between teachers’ and students’ essay scores using natural language processing tools. In A. Mitrovic, F. Verdejo, C. Conati, & N. Heffernan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Allen, L. K., Crossley, S. A., Snow, E. L., Jacovina, M. E., Perret, C., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Am I wrong or am I right? Gains in monitoring accuracy in an intelligent tutoring system for writing. In A. Mitrovic, F. Verdejo, C. Conati, & N. Heffernan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Promoting self-regulated learning in an intelligent tutoring system for writing. In A. Mitrovic, F. Verdejo, C. Conati, & N. Heffernan (Eds.), Doctoral Consortium within the Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Who do you think I am? Modeling individual differences for more adaptive and effective instruction. In O. C. Santos, J. G. Boticario, C. Romero, M. Pechenizkiy, A. Merceron, P. Mitros, J. M. Luna, C. Mihaescu, P. Moreno, A. Hershkovitz, S. Ventura, & M. Desmarais (Eds.), Doctoral Consortium within the Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). You are your words: Modeling students’ vocabulary knowledge with natural language processing. In O. C. Santos, J. G. Boticario, C. Romero, M. Pechenizkiy, A. Merceron, P. Mitros, J. M. Luna, C. Mihaescu, P. Moreno, A. Hershkovitz, S. Ventura, & M. Desmarais (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Allen, L. K., McNamara, D. S., & McCrudden, M. T. (2015). Change your mind: Investigating the effects of self-explanation in the resolution of misconceptions. In D. C. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings, & P. Maglio (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Cog Sci 2015). Pasadena, CA.

Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Are you reading my mind? Modeling students’ reading comprehension skills with Natural Language Processing techniques. In P. Blikstein, A. Merceron, & G. Siemens (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference (pp. 246-254). Poughkeepsie, NY.

Crossley, S. A., Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). Pssst…Textual features…There is more to automatic essay scoring than just you! In P. Blikstein, A. Merceron, & G. Siemens (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference (pp. 203-207). Poughkeepsie, NY.

Jacovina, M.E., Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., Roscoe, R. D., Weston, J. L., Dai, J., & McNamara, D. S. (2015). How to visualize success: Presenting complex data in a writing strategy tutor. In O. C. Santos, J. G. Boticario, C. Romero, M. Pechenizkiy, A. Merceron, P. Mitros, J. M. Luna, C. Mihaescu, P. Moreno, A. Hershkovitz, S. Ventura, & M. Desmarais (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Snow, E. L., Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., Perret, C. A., & McNamara, D.S. (2015). You’ve got style! Detecting writing flexibility across time. In P. Blikstein, A. Merceron, & G. Siemens (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference (pp. 194-202). Poughkeepsie, NY.

Snow, E. L., McNamara, D. S., Jacovina, M. E., Allen, L. K., Johnson, A. M., Perret, C. A., Dai, J., Jackson, G. T., Likens, A. D., Russell, D. G., & Weston, J. L. (2015). Promoting metacognitive awareness within a game-based intelligent tutoring system. In A. Mitrovic, F. Verdejo, C. Conati, & N. Heffernan (Eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED 2015). Madrid, Spain.

Soto, C. M., McNamara, D. S., Jacovina, M. E., Snow, E. L., Dai, J., Allen, L. K., Perret, C. A., Johnson, A. M., & Russell, D. G. (2015). iSTART-E: Desarrollando un tutor inteligente para la comprensión lectora de estudiantes de habla hispana. In M. Garcia (Ed.), Proceedings of the 15th annual colloquium on peninsular and Spanish American literature, linguistics and culture. Orlando, FL.

Allen, L. K., Mills, C., Jacovina, M. E., Crossley, S. A., D’Mello, S. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Investigating boredom and engagement during writing using multiple sources of information:  The essay, the writer, and keystrokes. In Proceedings of the 6th International Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK) Conference.

Knight, S. Allen, L. K., Littleton, K., Rienties, B., & Tempelaar, D. (in press). Writing analytics for epistemic features of student writing. In Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences.

Allen, L. K., Dascalu, M., McNamara, D. S., Crossley, S. A., & Trausan-Matu, S. (in press). Modeling individual differences among writers using ReaderBench. EduLearn (2016).

Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., Dascalu, M., Roscoe, R. D., Kent, K., Likens, A. D., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). {ENTER}ing the time series {SPACE}: Uncovering the writing process through keystroke analyses. International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2016).

Allen, L. K., Jacovina, M. E., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Cohesive features of deep text comprehension processes. To appear in the Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Cog Sci 2016). Philadelphia, PA.

Allen, L. K., Perret, C., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Linguistic signatures of cognitive processes during writing. To appear in the Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Cog Sci 2016). Philadelphia, PA.

Crossley, S. A., Dascalu, M., Trausan-Matu, S., Allen, L. K., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Document cohesion flow: Striving towards coherence. To appear in the Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (Cog Sci 2016). Philadelphia, PA.

Gifu, D., Dascalu, M., Trausan-Matu, S., & Allen, L. K. (in press). Time evolution of writing styles in Romanian language. European Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Roscoe, R. D., Jacovina, M. E., Allen, L. K., Johnson, A. C., & McNamara, D. S. (in press). Toward revision-sensitive feedback in automated writing evaluation. International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2016).

NON-REFEREED PUBLICATIONS 

Allen, L. K. (2014). Key factors in the integration of writing strategies within the L2 classroom. InterCom.

Allen, L. K. (2015). In their own words. Rhymes & Reasons: A newsletter for the Mississippi State University Department of English.